Aging is an inevitable outcome of life, characterized by progressive decline in tissue and organ function and increased risk of mortality. Accumulating evidence links aging to genetic and epigenetic alterations.
Also know, what is an example of epigenetics?
Examples of epigenetics
Epigenetic changes alter the physical structure of DNA. One example of an epigenetic change is DNA methylation — the addition of a methyl group, or a “chemical cap,” to part of the DNA molecule, which prevents certain genes from being expressed. Another example is histone modification.
Furthermore, can you reverse epigenetics?
Unlike genetic changes, epigenetic changes are reversible and do not change your DNA sequence, but they can change how your body reads a DNA sequence.
How does aging affect epigenetics?
The end result of epigenetic changes during aging is altered local accessibility to the genetic material, leading to aberrant gene expression, reactivation of transposable elements, and genomic instability.
Epigenetic changes directly contributing to aging and aging-related diseases include the accu- mulation of histone variants, changes in chromatin accessibility, loss of histones and heterochromatin, aberrant histone modifications, and deregulated expression/activity of miRNAs.
Epigenetic pathways are important therapeutic targets. The altered ‘bad’ epigenetic defects that accumulate in cancer are potentially reversible, and the ‘good’ epigenetic mechanisms which may still operate in cancer stem cell driven contexts could be promoted through inductive differentiation promoting signals.
Epigenetic changes are responsible for human diseases, including Fragile X syndrome, Angelman’s syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and various cancers.
Epigenetics is an emerging field of science that studies heritable changes caused by the activation and deactivation of genes without any change in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. The word epigenetics is of Greek origin and literally means over and above (epi) the genome.
The majority of DNA methylation occurs on cytosines that precede a guanine nucleotide or CpG sites. Overall, mammalian genomes are depleted of CpG sites that may result from the mutagenic potential of 5mC that can deaminate to thymine (Coulondre et al, 1978; Bird, 1980).